Outcome of routine histopathological examination of gallbladder specimen following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Ashesh Kumar Jha, Ashraf Ali, Manoj Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Punam Prasad Badhani, Niroop B S. Murthy, Kumar Chandrakant
Department of General Surgery and Pathology, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India

DOI: 10.4103/jcar.jcar_19_21


BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is one of the commonest surgical ailments encountered in our setup. Its prevalence in India varies from 2% to 29%. Although cholelithiasis accounts for more than 95% of gall bladder related disease, routine histopathological examination (HPE) is vital. It reveals a myriad of benign as well as the malignant surgical pathology of the gallbladder (GB). This part of the world is considered as an endemic region for GB carcinoma as well as gallstone disease. This study intends to evaluate the outcome of the routine HPE of laparoscopic cholecystectomy specimens.
METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated the results of the routine HPE of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy specimens of single tertiary care center. Patients suspected or diagnosed with carcinoma gall bladder were excluded. Demographic data such as age, sex, and pathology results were recorded.
RESULTS: From January 2017 to December 2019, HPEs of 921 patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy specimens were analyzed. 97.6% specimens had benign lesion of which chronic calculus cholecystitis was predominantly high (95.01%) followed by cholesterosis (9.9%) and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (6.51%). Incidental carcinoma gall bladder was observed in 17 specimens accounting for 1.85%. Mean age of patients who underwent cholecystectomy was 43.10 ± 13.90 with female to male ratio of 3.23:1.
CONCLUSION: Chronic calculus cholecystitis was the most common gall bladder disease with high female preponderance to all GB pathologies. This study affirms the importance of routine HPE after cholecystectomy as early incidental detection of carcinoma gall bladder alters the postoperative management approach and patients are expected to have a better outcome with it.

Keywords: Cholecystectomy, chronic cholecystitis, gallbladder, gallbladder carcinoma