Inhibitory potential of methanolic extracts of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia on hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in BALB/c mice

Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta Hadem1, Rajeshwar Nath Sharan2, Lakhan Kma3
1Cancer and Radiation Countermeasures Unit; Radiation and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
2Radiation and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
3Cancer and Radiation Countermeasures Unit, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.133520


Context: Aristolochia tagala (AT) and Curcuma caesia (CC) have been used traditionally by local herbal practitioners for cancer treatment and as chief ingredients of many polyherbal formulations for various types of ailments. However, there is void in scientific study to evaluate their anti-cancer property. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic properties of the crude methanolic extracts of roots of AT and rhizomes of CC in BALB/c mice exposed to a hepatocarcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Settings and Design: (I) Toxicity of herbal plant extracts (HPE); (II) Anticancer studies; (III) Histological studies; and (IV) Biochemical studies. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of these two HPE either alone or following DEN exposure, serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cancer marker enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE) were assayed in mice. In addition, histological study was also carried out under similar conditions. The antioxidant potentials of the HPE were evaluated by monitoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 6 Software using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Our findings show that DEN administration elevated AST, ALT, ALP, and AChE activities. CC or AT extracts attenuated the increased activities of these marker enzymes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, which were decreased following DEN administration, were significantly increased in mice treated with CC or AT. Conclusions: The present study clearly documents anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of AT and CC in DEN-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Aristolochia tagala, cancer, Curcuma caesia, diethylnitrosamine, liver