Shruti Chaturvedi1, Jorge A Garcia2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Taussig Cancer Institute and Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
2Department of Solid Tumor Oncology; Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic, Taussig Cancer Institute and Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in men and despite high cure rates with surgery and/or radiation, 30-40% of patients will eventually develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation is the first line therapy for standard of care for men with advanced disease. Eventually however all men will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Insight into the molecular mechanisms of androgen resistance has led to the development of alternative novel hormonal agents. Newer hormonal agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and TOK-001; and the first cancer vaccine, Sipuleucel T have been approved for use in men with CRPC. The recognition of the importance of bone health and morbidity associated with skeletal related events has led to the introduction of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B-ligand inhibitor denosumab. Other molecularly targeted therapies have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but this has not consistently translated into clinical efficacy. It is increasingly evident that CRPC is a heterogeneous disease and an individualized approach directed at identifying primary involvement of specific pathways could maximize the benefit from targeted therapies. This review focuses on targeted therapy for PCa with special emphasis on therapies that have been Food and Drug Administration approved for use in men with CRPC.
Keywords: Adrenal synthesis inhibition, androgen deprivation, androgen receptor, bone health, castrtion-resistant prostate cancer, immunotherapy, second-line hormonal therapy